what is biopesticide
different countries have different definitions and categories of biopesticides
what is biopesticide? it refers to the direct use of biologically active substances or substances extracted from organisms (as well as synthetic compounds with the same structure as natural compounds) as pesticides for the prevention and control of diseases, insects, grasses and rodents, which is commonly referred to as biogenic pesticides.
at present, there is no uniform international definition and registration policy for biopesticides. most of the microbial and biochemical pesticides are considered as biological pesticides; there is little consensus on natural enemies and genetically modified pesticides, and there is no registration regulation for natural enemies in china in the new requirements; agricultural antibiotics are hardly recognized, but the u.s. zinc salt of polyantimycin d belongs to biological pesticides to biological pesticides, and china also attributes agricultural antibiotics to biological pesticides. there are also invertebrate nematodes in some countries. the differences can be seen in the classification tables of biopesticides by countries and organizations at cash headquarters (see table below).
global use of biopesticides
1. global biopesticide market
in 2017, global sales of biopesticides exceeded us$3.3 billion, accounting for 5% of the total plant protection market, and continued to grow at a high rate with an annual compound growth rate of 13.9%. the market value of biopesticides is expected to reach us$9.5 billion by 2025. the contribution of microbial pesticides to global agriculture and environment is the main reason for the growth of biopesticides, which is expected to increase from $3.09 billion in 2017 to $6.01 billion by 2022.
2. current status of biopesticide development in the united states
the united states is in the leading position in the field of biopesticides. epa has become the world leader in the regulation of biopesticides and pioneered the simplification of global biopesticide registration. in the past 20 years, biopesticides introduced in the us market include biopesticides, biostimulants, sar inducibles, mating interferons, root symbiotic fungi and so on.
the u.s. biopesticide market ranks first in the world and accounts for one third of the global market. bacillus thuringiensis, pseudomonas, trichoderma and other microbial agents dominate the u.s. market and account for two-thirds of the market share.
3. global use of biopesticides
biopesticide use in the united states, canada and mexico was the largest, accounting for 44% of the world total, followed by 20% in europe, 13% in asia, 11% in oceania and 12% in the rest. biological control products only account for 0.6-3.5% of the pesticide market in china (from 2012 to 2018), which is far below the level of 20-60% in developed countries.
iii. summary of the registration of biopesticides in china
1. general situation of pesticides in china
by the end of 2018, the total number of registered pesticide products in china was 41 518, with 681 registered active ingredients. compared with the increase of 3271 in 2017, the growth rate has slowed down slightly. from the change of total registered products in the past six years, the total amount and the official registration showed a gradual upward trend, pesticides declined year by year and then stabilized, fungicides continued to rise and then decline, herbicides continued to rise in the past four years, basically reflecting the general direction of pesticide research and development in recent years.
2. toxicity of products
in terms of product toxicity, among registered products, the proportion of micro-toxic products and low-toxic products was 8.3% and 76%, respectively, totaling 84.3% and 14.6% respectively. the proportion of moderate toxic products and high-toxic and highly toxic products was about 1.07%. in 2018, 94.4% of new registered products were low toxic and micro toxic products, and 0.04% were high toxic and highly toxic products.
the results showed that the national agricultural department guided and encouraged the research and development and registration of high-efficiency, low-toxicity and low-risk pesticides, and quickened the withdrawal of high-toxicity and high-risk pesticides. the total proportion of low-toxicity and low-toxicity products increased steadily.
3. new registered active components
there are 15 active ingredients registered for the first time in 2018. all active ingredients belong to low toxicity or low toxicity, and the proportion of bio-pesticide varieties reaches 46.6%(7/15). this indicates that the research and development of modern pesticides is developing in the direction of novel mechanism, low residue and low risk.
4. overall survey of biopesticide registration
as of december 31, 2017, the total number of registered pesticide products in china was 38248, of which 102 were active ingredients of biogenic pesticides (except agricultural antibiotics) and 1379 were products, accounting for 15% and 3.6% of total effective ingredients and total products respectively; for example, 115 were active ingredients of agricultural antibiotics and 3764 were products, accounting for 17% and 9.8% respectively. among them, microbial pesticides have the most active ingredients and agricultural antibiotic products.
in 2018, seven bioactive components were registered for the first time, including 24-epirutin, e-8-dodecadienyl ethyl ester, s-enonyl ester, bacillus polymyxa kn-03, bacillus methotrophica lw-6, rice leaf roller granulosis virus and cis-9 trans-12-tetracene acetate, which accounted for almost half of the effective components of the newly registered pesticides.
meanwhile, 75 new registered pesticide products were added in 2017. among the new proliferative pesticides, 22 were botanical pesticides, 20 were bacterial biopesticides, and new varieties of botanical pesticides and different strains accounted for the main part of the increment. the registered species and quantity of bio-pesticides have increased significantly, indicating that bio-pesticides are developing rapidly and steadily, and increasing at a rate of about 4% per year.
in terms of categories and active ingredients, the most registered products of biochemical pesticides are gibberellic acid, amino-oligosaccharides and 24-epibrassinolide, accounting for 70% of the total. the top three products registered most are bacillus thuringiensis, bacillus subtilis and bacillus cereus, accounting for 70% of the total. matrine, rotenone and azadirachtin are the top three products registered with the largest number of botanical pesticides, accounting for 80% of the total.
at the same time, the state has gradually standardized the registration management of biological pesticides, giving more relaxed policies from the requirements of registration data, reducing and exempting some registration data, accelerating the speed of registration and evaluation, etc. to increase the support of biological pesticides, so as to increase the market share of biological pesticide products year by year.
conclusion: in recent years, the state has intensified efforts to promote green and high-quality development of agriculture and carried out negative growth of pesticide use. the establishment of bio-pesticide registration regulations and green channel will simplify the process of market access and save registration costs, which will promote the development of bio-pesticides, which also indicates that bio-pesticides will usher in excellent development opportunities.