autumn and winter management of fruit trees is an important part of fruit tree management and a necessary measure to ensure good growth and fruit in the second year.
base fertilizer is the basic fertilizer for nutrient supply of fruit trees for a long time in one year, and it must be applied adequately. often, late-acting organic fertilizers are the main ones, with phosphorus fertilizer and a small amount of available nitrogen fertilizer. organic fertilizers mainly use human and animal manure, green manure, grass, straw and so on. phosphate fertilizers often use superphosphate. the most suitable time for applying base fertilizer is autumn. the fruit should be harvested immediately, sooner rather than later. fertilizer can be applied in ring ditch, radiation ditch and strip ditch, alternately every year.
after applying basic fertilizer in autumn, fruit trees were irrigated with overwintering water once before soil freezing.
3. white trunk
white trunk can prevent frost damage and prevent overwintering diseases and insect pests. limestone water is the main way to coat the trunk with white. adding proper salt and pig blood, a small amount of yellow mud can also be added.
4. plastic pruning
fruit tree pruning, especially winter pruning, is the main measure of fruit tree management. flexible use of "short, thinning, shrinking, throwing, injuring, twigging, supporting, pulling" and other means. to achieve "tangible and immortal, invisible and chaotic", so that the backbone of fruit trees is stable and firm, and the distribution of branches is appropriate. when pruning fruit trees formed after many years of cultivation, attention should be paid to retaining the lengthening head of the backbone branches, pruning the branch groups reasonably, achieving the three-dimensional results of "sparse upper branches, dense lower branches, dense inner ones, sparse outer ones", solving the problem of ventilation and light transmission, and pruning the cross branches, overlapping branches, sagging branches and disease and insect branches appropriately. in order to prune natural trees without pruning for many years, we should comprehensively consider tree shape transformation, make full use of the angle of branch opening by means of "supporting and pulling", prune and shrink properly, and focus on ventilation and light transmission, and renewal and cultivation of branch groups. do not sparse too many branches, turning big trees into small trees, causing "mouth injury" and "ring injury" on the central trunk.
prevention and control of diseases and pests
(1) combining with pruning, the disease and insect branches are cut off. remove the residual dead leaves and fruits on the tree body in time, remove the tie-ups such as hanging fruit rope, and eliminate the places where pests and diseases overwinter. scrape the old forsythia bark off the tree in time and burn it centrally.
(2) patches on fruit trees should be removed in time. the debris removed should also be burned centrally.