we all know that in the biological world there is a law of mutual restraint. among all kinds of fertilizers, there is also a relationship between "mutual generation" and "mutual restraint". for example, the excess available phosphorus combined with the available zinc in the soil to form insoluble zinc phosphate precipitation, which caused the lack of available zinc in the soil. moreover, excess available phosphorus can also inhibit nitrogen uptake by crops, resulting in nitrogen deficiency. for example, if more potassium fertilizer is applied, the excess potassium will reduce the uptake of nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, boron and zinc by crops, resulting in the lack of these nutrients in crops. even organic fertilizers should not be overused. if applied too much, the contradiction between soil microorganisms and crops will arise between "competing for nitrogen" and "competing for nitrogen", which will cause temporary nitrogen deficiency in soil for a period of time, and the excess organic matter will form complex or chelate with zinc, which will reduce the effectiveness of zinc. so what methods should we use to prevent the phenomenon of fertilizer "xiangke"?
firstly, balanced fertilization should be achieved as far as possible. partial or multiple application of simple fertilizers to crops not only wastes fertilizers, increases production costs, but also leads to the lack of some other nutrients. when applying fertilizer, according to the different structure of crop fertilizer requirement and the fertilizer supply ability of soil, we should make every effort to balance the nutrient elements, so that we can be at peace.
second, pay attention to the proportion of demand. we should increase with increase and decrease with decrease. compared with simple fertilizer, the proportion of nutrient elements in compound fertilizer or compound fertilizer is more appropriate and coordinated. therefore, compound fertilizer should be the main fertilizer, supplemented by simple fertilizer. for crops with high potassium requirement such as vegetables harvested with tubers and roots, the addition of potassium sulfate fertilizer can be made on the basis of applying sulfur-based compound fertilizer.
3. staggered application period or site. if zinc fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer are mixed, it will inevitably produce "xiangke". therefore, phosphate fertilizer should be used as base fertilizer or base fertilizer, and zinc fertilizer should be used as topdressing fertilizer. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other large element fertilizers should mainly be topdressed in rhizosphere, and micro-fertilizer should be sprayed on leaf surface.
4. reduce the scope of contact. nitrogen and potassium fertilizers can be sprayed; phosphorus fertilizers can be concentrated fertilization; micronutrients can be mixed seeds, soaked seeds, dipped in roots and other methods, so that trace elements are confined to a smaller range of roots, as far as possible not to contact with a large number of elements.