the beginning of summer has passed, and this year's summer officially begins. with the temperature rising, thunderstorm will come, and the field crops will enter the growth season.
three seasons of lixia
at the beginning of the day, the sound of a mole is heard. mole, bug, living in the hole soil, good night out.
second, earthworms come out. earthworms are also earthworms. "lijie" says that those who bend in the yin, stretch out in the yang, and see.
third, wang guasheng. according to the book of pictures, there are wanggua everywhere. in my life, there are wild fields, houses, walls and walls. the leaves look like yam, round without ya, lack of hair, like thorny vines, born in may, with yellow flowers, flowers bearing seeds, like bullets, green ripe, red roots like ge, thin and grits. it is also called tu gua. it's also used in today's medicine.
after the beginning of summer, the majority of farmers' friends should pay close attention to the field management. with the arrival of fine weather and the gradual rise of temperature, summer harvest and summer planting will begin soon, which is the busy season of agricultural operation.
key points of agricultural management in lixia
during the period from lixia to xiaoman, the climate is abnormal, cold and hot, accompanied by sand and dust weather, which has brought adverse effects on crops cultivated in various protected areas, and will cause more diseases and insect pests.
1、 pest control
in the beginning of summer, the temperature difference between the north and the south is great, and it fluctuates frequently in the same area. at this time, it is a period of multiple crop diseases and insect pests. attention should be paid to the control of whitefly, aphid and liriomyza melanogaster, especially the pests in the shed should be eliminated in the shed in the first ten days of may, so as to reduce the pests flying to the outdoor environment outside the shed and cause greater harm.
2、 disease control (increased risk of disease epidemic in the field)
wheat heading and flowering is the most susceptible period to scab. if it is expected that there will be warm but rainy weather in the future, it is necessary to pay close attention to spraying control from the initial flowering stage to the full flowering stage. (at present, some areas have entered the end of prevention and control period)
in addition, before and after the beginning of summer, the temperature in north china, northwest and other places picked up quickly, but the precipitation was still not much, plus the windy spring, strong evaporation, air drying and soil drought seriously affected the normal growth of crops. in particular, we should pay attention to the dry hot wind before and after the wheat milking, which is an important disastrous weather leading to the reduction of production. we should timely irrigation and prevention.
aphids, powdery mildew, rust and stripe rust that happened last year are also important factors threatening wheat yield. prevention is the basis of ensuring wheat yield.
under the rainy or warm and cold weather conditions, cotton in south china often causes the outbreak of anthrax, bacterial wilt and other diseases, resulting in a large area of dead seedlings and lack of seedlings. necessary measures should be taken to increase temperature and reduce humidity in time, and combined with chemical control.
(3) dead vegetable seedlings and abnormal eggplant fruits frequently appear
during the period from lixia to xiaoman, the climate is abnormal, cold and hot, accompanied by dust weather, which brings adverse effects on various crops.
there are many diseases, the phenomenon of dead seedling of melon and eggplant is common in winter stubble, and there are some diseases, such as vine withering, standing withering, bacterial wilt, downy mildew and pestilence;
the fruits of aubergine fruits with abnormal growth are uneven in expansion, many hollow fruits and deformed fruits, and there are many melons with long seedlings, sharp mouth melons and curved melons.
ventilation: in management, it is necessary to control 24 ℃ ventilation in the shed in sunny days and not to exceed 32 ℃ at noon. if the temperature is too high at night, leave a vent. the temperature difference between day and night in the shed is more than 10-15 ℃, and the lowest temperature in the morning is 12-15 ℃, which is conducive to the normal growth of crops.
stubble changing and disinfection: for the shed with more than one third of dead seedlings, the stubble should be changed after soil disinfection, and the soil purification agent plus straw or plant seedlings and vines should be used for 25-30cm deep turning, ridging, mulching, irrigation, closed shed, high temperature disinfection for 20-25 days, which can effectively prevent and control soil borne diseases and insect pests (root knot nematode) and physiological diseases caused by continuous cropping obstacles.
pruning and thinning melon: after summer, for the varieties of melon and vegetable planted on the scaffold, pruning and binding vines should be done in time, and the old leaves and diseased leaves should be removed in time. (if there are too many melons sitting on the seedling and vine, the melon should be sparsely distributed, and two leaves should be kept for one melon. if the melon size is rare, the hoe can be used to control the water. when most melons are sitting for more than 10 cm, water and apply fertilizer properly.)
for eggplant and fruit (eggplant and tomato), plant growth regulator is still needed to prevent falling element from dipping or spraying flowers. as the temperature increases, the use concentration will decrease.
3、 other important farming (sowing, transplanting, weeding at seedling stage)
(1) sowing cucumber, cowpea, eggplant and winter melon before and after summer.
(2) rice: after summer, it is the key period for large-scale planting of early rice. moreover, the time of rain coming and the amount of rain are closely related to the future harvest. as the saying goes, "if you don't get down in the summer, the plow and rake will hang high." "no rain in summer, no rice in the head." at this time, the temperature is still low. after planting seedlings, we should immediately strengthen management, apply fertilizer as early as possible, cultivate fields as early as possible, treat diseases and insect pests as early as possible, and promote early occurrence. middle rice should be sown in a timely manner.
(3) middle ploughing and weeding: "weeding everywhere for three days in summer", when weeds grow rapidly, "weeding for one day is impossible for three days." medium tillage and weeding can not only remove weeds, resist drought and waterlogging, but also improve the ground temperature and accelerate the decomposition of soil nutrients, which is of great significance to promote the healthy growth of cotton, corn, sorghum, peanut and other crops at seedling stage.
4、 fruit tree management (mainly pruning in summer, but still be careful of pests and diseases)
citrus: suitable weather conditions are easy to cause a large number of summer shoots. this month's young trees need to seize the opportunity to attack the shoots and expand the crown. for hanging fruit trees, the key is to deal with the contradiction between the shoots and fruits and reduce the fruit drop. do well in flower and fruit conservation, spray 1-2 times of foliar nutrient solution and fruit conservation agent in time after flower fading, and wipe off too many new shoots.
do a good job in the prevention and control of post anthesis diseases and insect pests. in may, the citrus diseases and insect pests will enter a high incidence period. the diseases mainly include anthrax, canker, brown spot, etc. the insect pests mainly include leafminer, scale insect, wood louse, rust tick, longicorn, grasshopper, etc. pay attention to strengthen the prevention and control, and do not neglect the dead corner of the grass on the tree tray.
apple: may is the key period for apple young fruit development and new growth, fruit thinning, fruit fixing and summer pruning, as well as the important period for pest control.
in may, apple diseases that are easy to break out are mainly powdery mildew, rust, brown spot, anthrax, ring rot and leaf spot; insect pests are mainly leaf roller moth, leafminer, aphid, red spider, apple cotton aphid, etc.
pear: to control the excessive growth of new shoots, control the fruit amount and promote the flower bud differentiation of new shoots, strengthen the prevention and control work of pear webbug, pear small carnivore, ginobia aurea and pear black spot.
peach: pruning in summer as the center, timely fruit thinning, bagging and topdressing.
cherry (big cherry): to promote flower bud differentiation as the center, strengthen post harvest management and control of moths, coir moths, tentacle caterpillars, tail raising caterpillars, dead leaf moths, peach leafhoppers, red spiders, longicorn and other pests.
grape: entering the vigorous growth stage, new vines develop leaves, grow and bloom. in order to pursue good quality grape, the whole ear shape of flower and fruit was modified and the load was strictly controlled. focus on pruning in summer, and strengthen the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests.
generally, about 15 days before the grape blooms, it is an important control point of grey mould, black pox, anthrax, downy mould and brown blight of cob. 3-5 days before flowering is the control point of gray mould, black pox, anthrax, downy mould, rachis brown blight and other diseases, taking into account the insect pests such as transptera moth and scarab.
in addition, one week to two weeks after anthesis is the best time for calcium supplement. it is suggested that 2-3 times of foliar calcium supplement in this period will play a great role in reducing fruit cracking and sunburn in the later stage.
in fact, the knowledge of field work is far more than that. as the saying goes: "when the agricultural season comes to summer, check and make up all the seedlings. grain and cotton crops should be loosened frequently, and grass and soil should be cut to root. " as for agriculture, the beginning of summer heralds the beginning of busy farming. therefore, the knowledge must be accurately grasped to avoid stepping on the pit.