"every flower of a crop depends on fertilizer." it is impossible to avoid the problem of fertilizer when dealing with agriculture. fertilizer selection is the key to good crop growth. however, there are so many fertilizers to choose. which one is the most suitable for your crops? what are the differences among the three fertilizers? how to make the best use of them?
1. organic fertilizer
organic fertilizer: mainly from plants and (or) animals, applied to the soil to provide plant nutrition as its main function of carbon materials. through the processing of biological materials, animal and plant wastes and plant residues, the toxic and harmful substances are eliminated, and a large number of beneficial substances are rich, including a variety of organic acids, peptides and rich nutrient elements including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
it can not only provide comprehensive nutrition for crops, but also has long fertilizer efficiency. it can increase and renew soil organic matter, promote microbial reproduction, and improve soil physical and chemical properties and biological activity. it is the main nutrient for green food production.
2. inorganic fertilizer
inorganic fertilizer is mineral fertilizer, which refers to the fertilizer produced by chemical synthesis method, also known as chemical fertilizer, referred to as chemical fertilizer. inorganic fertilizer includes nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and compound fertilizer. it has the characteristics of simple composition, high content of effective ingredients, easy to dissolve in water, fast decomposition, easy to be absorbed by root system, so it is called "quick acting fertilizer".
3. biological fertilizer
biological fertilizer: it is a kind of product that the life activity of microorganism leads to the specific fertilizer effect of crops. it is a kind of fertilizer used in agricultural production. the availability of microbial fertilizer is based on the types of beneficial microorganisms and the vigorous life activities. unlike other fertilizers, it is based on the form and amount of the main elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
it is closely related to soil moisture, soil temperature and living conditions.
4. advantages and disadvantages of three fertilizers
advantages: high nutrient content, fast fertilizer effect and significant yield increase effect.
disadvantages: the nutrient is relatively single, which usually needs several fertilizers to be applied together; the nutrient release speed is fast, and the vertical balance supply capacity is poor; the fertilizer utilization rate is not high due to the loss of volatilization, leaching and fixation; the acid, alkali and salt are strong, and improper application is not only unfavorable to plant growth, but also may cause soil deterioration and reduce soil fertility.
advantages: rich in organic matter and a variety of nutrients needed by plants. organic fertilizer is also an excellent soil improvement and fertility fertilizer agent. it has a good effect on improving soil structure, increasing soil nutrient capacity, enhancing soil fertility and water retention capacity, regulating soil ph, promoting soil microbial activity, and improving soil nutrient availability.
disadvantages: the nutrient concentration is low and the fertilizer supply is slow, so the yield increase effect is not as obvious as that of chemical fertilizer.
advantages: it can activate the fixed nutrient elements in the soil, stimulate the growth and absorption of root system, and reduce the amount of fertilization of corresponding nutrient elements.
disadvantages: it does not contain any nutrient elements, nor can it supply nutrients for crops for a long time. since bacterial fertilizer is composed of living bacteria, direct sunlight and mixed application with pesticides are usually avoided, and the environmental conditions such as soil temperature, humidity, ph and organic matter content are also strictly required.
after understanding their advantages and disadvantages, we can draw the conclusion that the effect of chemical fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer and biological bacterial fertilizer is better than that of single application. however, in order to achieve the best fertilization effect, the following problems should be paid attention to when combined application.
5. how to match reasonably
first, pay attention to the application time
organic fertilizer has a slow effect and should be applied early. generally, it should be applied once before sowing or planting. it is better to decompose before use, and the effect of late topdressing is not as obvious as that of base fertilizer.
chemical fertilizer should be applied about a week in advance when it is used as base fertilizer, and it should be applied before the critical period of crop nutrition or the peak period of nutrient absorption in order to meet the needs.
biological fertilizer can only play the role of bacteriostasis by bacteria after a large number of reproduction in the soil, so it should be applied in advance before planting, so that it can have time for reproduction and growth. it can be applied into the soil together with organic fertilizer, or be applied in holes before or during planting.
secondly, pay attention to the application method
the main function of organic fertilizer is to improve the soil and provide nutrients. generally, it is applied into the soil as the base fertilizer. therefore, it is necessary to combine deep ploughing to make the soil and organic fertilizer completely mixed, so as to achieve the purpose of improving the soil. when the soil problems are serious, the sea spirit biological stimulant can be used to better improve the soil environment, balance the nutrition, and increase the soil aggregate structure.
in the base fertilizer, because the nutrient of organic fertilizer is mainly nitrogen, the nitrogen fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer can be applied less, and 30% can be used as base fertilizer and 70% as topdressing. phosphorus and potassium fertilizer can be applied as base fertilizer at one time. because of poor mobility of phosphate fertilizer, the effect of late topdressing is very poor, so phosphate fertilizer should be applied as base fertilizer into soil.
the best topdressing fertilizer is total soluble quick acting fertilizer, such as phosphorus and potassium source pool, which can be quickly absorbed by vegetables after decomposition and has little effect on soil.
because of the low amount of bio fertilizer, it can be concentrated in planting hole or applied with organic fertilizer. in the later stage, the application of potassium fertilizer can improve the control effect of the same bacteria group.
thirdly, pay attention to the dosage
different crops in different growth stages need different amounts of fertilizer, which can not be applied more or less. fertilizer should be applied according to the different proportion of fertilizer needed by crops. at the same time, the content of nutrient elements in soil should be considered comprehensively. it is better to conduct a soil test according to the recommendation of soil testing formula fertilization.